Beach Captions That Aren't Basic, How Does Garlic Mustard Spread, How To Remove Mouse Trap Glue From Dog Fur, How Do I Calculate How Much Topsoil I Need?, Puaada Punjabi Movie Release Date, Arborist Training Cost, Romantic Style Dresses, Toddler Girl Jackets, A Brief Guide To Modernism, Hutchwilco Dog Life Jacket, Hawkeye And The Winter Soldier Movie, What Is Black Hills State University Known For, Rv Parks In Chilliwack, Bc, ...">

reset electronic throttle control ram 1500

Once this is done, your car's computer will readjust to the changes and modifications made. Drove fine for those two weeks then last night, the "service ETC" light comes back on and went into limp mode. EcoDiesel Service Electronic Throttle Control Message. Another thing is map sensor. Using this tool, a mechanic can run the relearn procedure that's appropriate for your Dodge. If the calibration does not help you, you can try cleaning or replacing the sensor. Ram1500Diesel.com is the largest RAM 1500 Diesel forum community on the web with discussions on 2014+ Ram EcoDiesel trucks. Now, press the accelerator pedal and do press and release five times amidst 5 seconds. Ecodisel, drinks Satin's bathwater and emits angel's tears. 2. I left a message with them on Friday to run a diagnostic on the accelerator pedal, and when they finally called today they were adamant on the intake and hadn't even checked the accelerator pedal. This article applies to the 4th Generation Dodge Ram 1500 (2009-Present). 4. Code was P0299 and they replaced the turbo, all the gaskets, cac hose and fuel filters. I called him out on that being the same code for the turbo and you could tell he said shit in his head and wasn't supposed to tell me that because he hesitated to give me a response, before he said the turbo is working just fine, but still trying to figure out why that came up again twice. Does your truck feel sluggish when accelerating? Damage to the sensor or the associated wiring can be felt as engine hesitation, stumbling, and even misfires. Dry the sensor by using compressed air in a light pressure, or let it air dry. By logging into your account, you agree to our. Code was P0299 and they replaced the turbo, all the gaskets, cac hose and fuel filters. Fully depress the accelerator pedal for approximately 10 seconds. 1985 RAM D150 2008 RAM 1500 RC SLT HEMI. Almost all cars after 1990 were equipped with some kind of electronic computer that was supposed to control the functions of the car. These screws do not require much torque. We replaced the electronic throttle body and it was fine for about 100 miles and … read more If the sounds coming from your Ram are causing others to panic and duck, then read this article to help resolve the underlying issue. Sorry for the delay in response, as it's been a week since I had heard from the dealer. I just had the same issue (search for my post - documented it all there). Wait for all of the warning lights to go out. Using CRC (Electronic Component Cleaner) or equivalent, clean the sensor by spraying the cleaner into the drilled hole. They are sticking with the intake manifold now at this point. ETC (electronic throttle control) - 2010 Dodge Ram 1500 3 Answers. The engine computer uses the throttle position sensor to read the position of the throttle plate while it's being moved by your foot via a cable. An electrical glitch in the sensor can relay false readings to the computer and cause your air/fuel ratio to become inaccurate, which is accompanied with poor throttle response. Discuss performance mods, towing capacity, wheels, tires, lift kits, and much more! I have a 2004 Dodge Ram 1500 5.7L Hemi and having the same problem. This article applies to the Dodge Ram 3rd Generation (2002-2008). If you wrestle with a pig you'll both get dirty and the pig loves it. One of the most common electronic throttle control problems is the intermittent response from the throttle controller. This article applies ... Why Am I Experiencing Carbon Buildup? Insert key into the ignition and turn the key to the "on" (not start) position. Increases Throttle Response. About 2 weeks ago I had the "service Electronic Throttle Control" light come on. Coat the outside of the electrical tape face as well as edges with clear RTV silicone to ensure a water and dirt tight seal. How to Repair and Replace TPS It will become clogged and stop sending signal. To reset the throttle control system what you need to do is. I am waiting to hear back from them right now about the pedal. There is no calibration for throttle position or pedal position with the Hemi engines. The problem returned again, and the throttle control warning light illuminated. It's free! How to reset electronic throttle control manually ram 1500 Before doing this, ensure that the accelerator pedal is fully released. Wait for all of the warning lights to go out. For a better experience, please enable JavaScript in your browser before proceeding. as a TSB was issued for that matter. Not because they are bad or anything, but the fact they are throwing parts at it. About 2 weeks ago I had the "service Electronic Throttle Control" light come on. . Ram sent the towing truck again. The check engine light may remain on. Well Un fotunetly they still haven't figured out all of the grimlens they have lurking in them. I would definitely not trust these guys. Did your truck go into limp mode the first time when you had the P0299 error? I will be interested to see if they figure it out Tuesday! If your 2015 or 2016 EcoDiesel Ram 1500 truck has been in the shop 3 or more times for the check engine light on, loss of power or limp mode or the service electronic throttle control message, contact Roseman Law Firm at 800-745-5259 or go to www.helpforlemoncars.com to find out your rights for free under the lemon laws. As you spray, rotate the sensor shaft (pink circular component) to ensure the electrical contacts has been reached. Re-install the sensor onto the throttle body and tighten down the two Torx screws. Depending on your Ram truck model, it will either be fuse #19, #23, or #31. Wait 7 to 10 seconds. I have a 2003 Dodge ram 1500 with a 5.7 hemi. Throttle Body Replacement Estimate for Dodge Ram 1500 Dodge Ram 1500 Throttle Body Replacement costs $416 on average. it will only tach about 2800 now. 2004 Dodge Ram 1500 4x4 Hemi. 4. I fortunate that when I brought my Truck in: I'm currently in Greensboro North Carolina. Slowly release the accelerator pedal until it's all the way back up. My 2010 Dodge Ram 1500 suddenly won't start and the ETC (electronic throttle control) light is now on. CarGuyOhio Many tool manufacturers make mini ratchets that can be purchased with Torx bits to make this process easier. The 2012 Ram 1500 has 1 problems reported for engine light and electronic throttle control sensor lights on. Slowly depress the accelerator pedal all the way to the floor. 3. I have a 2014 Ram 1500 Ecodiesel with 104K miles on it. AT intersections I tend to have 1 foot on the brake and the other on the throttle. Wait 3 seconds. Three years ago : When the warning light came on while on the highway I lost most power. This computer is called an ECU or PCM and is included with every car you buy. Or as they call it in the diesel a boost sensor. In addition to an ECU, there are many other small electronic components such as an Electronic Throttle Control (ETC). The electronic throttle control light is flashing in my 2004 1500 5.7 Hemi truck, won't accelerate but does turn on, where should i start? 1. When getting it serviced the first time, they mentioned getting the intake valve I believe it was replaced as well, maybe the intake manifold, don't remember. Still, knowing about the causes of a flashing electronic throttle control light will give you a head start over what repair work to expect. 5. This article applies to the Dodge Ram 1500 (2009-Present). I took it in to the dealership and they serviced it. It has a three-wire potentiometer, meaning it varies its resistance based upon its position. When I turn the key it looks and sounds like it wants to start then nothing. Diagnostic Reset. 3. Read this article to learn how to replace it. Take a look at the diagram on the back of the cover. 5. I smiled took the loaner and will be dealing with the manager whenever I hear back for my truck, as I now should not be paying for anything and if not a refund, this is ridiculous!! ETC (electronic throttle control) - 2010 Dodge Ram 1500 3 Answers. Use light pressure while drilling, or you will risk damaging the sensor. While on vacation at about 1,000 miles Electronic Throttle Control warning light came on. 2. Sign in to reply. The Electronic Throttle Control system is the inner workers of the engine that signals the throttle when the pedal is pushed. Insert key into the ignition and turn the key to the \"on\" (not start) position. Carefully pull the sensor out of the throttle body once these screws are removed. It was really gummed up so cleaned it with carb cleaner and disconnected the battery for then minutes. I removed the throttle body. Get them to check your Accelerator pedal. If you are installing a new sensor instead, your sensor may come with a new gasket or O-ring specific to your model year. I wish this … 2020 Ram Limited have had for 2 months. Turn the ignition key to \"off\". You will need to squeeze the bottom side of the connector while pulling it away from the sensor to make it release. Then, wait for a minimum of 3 seconds. I hope this doesn't present major issues down the road. First, disconnect the electric connector from the sensor. Turn the ignition switch to on. About the throttle control system. Before replacing the sensor, try the calibration procedure: 1. After the 2003 model year, Dodge Rams with the 5.7 Hemi engine began using "drive-by-wire" electronic throttle control. The engine computer supplies the sensor with a steady reference voltage of five volts through one wire, and receives a signal from 0.5 volts (closed throttle) to 4.5 volts (open throttle) from the potentiometer as the throttle is moved. The electronic throttle control light came on flashing and we lost power. I did my reasearch, changed the fuel filter, cleaned the MAP it all seemed good for a week and a half and got it again this past weekend. Throttle body carbon buildup can cause some serous problems. It's a 2018 with 24,300 miles on it. The check engine light may remain on. This is best made at the center of the angled surface. JavaScript is disabled. My 2010 Dodge Ram 1500 suddenly won't start and the ETC (electronic throttle control) light is now on. Irregular Throttle Control Operation. Once the sensor has dried, cover the hole with a small piece of electric tape. Fully depress and release the accelerator pedal 5 times within 5 second. That solved my problem for about three years. again you could see him saying **** in his head, hesitated and luckily one of his guys called about the loaner being fueled up and ready to go. Ram 1500 2018, Fuel Injection Throttle Body by Spectra Premium®. Resets after 2 seconds but that's a long time in the middle of an intersection! Create new posts and participate in discussions. It doesn't like that. While driving, the malfunction indicator light and the electronic throttle control light will both come on at the same time, (the mil will be steady and the etc light will be flashing) and the feeling of a sudden reduction of power. Did someone just let off a gun? Replace your throttle body with a larger unit for increased engine efficiency. The electrical contacts inside are susceptible to dirt, heat, and vibration. I feel more like I do now than I did when I got here. Don t start the engine! Average failure mileage is 34,800 miles. Slowly release the accelerator pedal until it's all the way back up. Then re-connect the electrical connector. Find the power distribution center (PDC); it will be a black box near the battery. I said to him again isn't that why I'm about to spend even more money to have the intake replaced that you guys were so absolutely set on being the problem? then the service electronic throttle control message came on. Dealer said he couldn't look at it till Tuesday so I'm hoping it doesn't go from bad to worse this weekend. Over time, carbon buildup on the contacts will lead to high resistance in the circuit, creating drivability problems. The Electronic Throttle Control system within most vehicles is constructed with three important parts: the accelerator pedal, the throttle valve, and a control module or PCM . I ordered a 18 dollar Bluetooth OBDII reader that i can reset the code right from my phone. This article applies to the Dodge Ram 2nd Generation (1994-2001). The throttle position sensor is mounted on the side of the engine throttle body. Preciate the help so far, I mentioned a few of these to them to check so we shall se what the say back!! Upon his return, he was informed there was nothing wrong. When the error would come up, it would throw a lot of Engine Codes - but they were really just a symptom - not the actual problem (the codes were being generated because the Pedal was saying one thing, but the Computer was seeing something else - so engine management would get all confused). Pull the fuse from the PDC. i am assuming it is in limp mode. Larger aftermarket throttle ... How to Clean Throttle Body This article does not apply to those trucks. For most of the 20th century, throttle control involved a direct, mechanical connection between your accelerator and the engine. ... the same dreadful throttle control message came back after 40 miles or so. After I replaced the … read more You may want to retry the calibration procedure once this is complete (Option 1). ECU Accelerator Pedal Reset Procedure Note Timing is critical for this to work! That is the only code showing on my truck right now and the drivability seems normal to me. Before replacing the sensor, try the calibration procedure: You can also find this procedure in your Ram's service manual. Tupelo, I read your previous post and mine has almost the exact same symptoms. Unlatch and open the cover of the PDC. I have a 2014 Ram 1500 Ecodiesel with 104K miles on it. Dodge developed a calibration procedure for the throttle position sensor that may restore proper operation to your Ram. The Dodge Ram throttle enhancement parts come complete in a kit to make the installation easier and performance better. There are two Torx head screws holding the sensor to the throttle body. Ether there stuck open or closed? I thought it felt like it was underpowered but couldn't really figure out what was going on since the engine was running so well. I limped home going 60 km/h. I got that same message a few times. First issue I've had with it, and I … Now turn the ignition switch “OFF” and wait for at least 10 seconds. I heard from RAM, they are picking up the truck, and the case manager was super nice, kind of eased my anxiety. All vehicles require maintenance and regular care if you want to keep them ... Why is My Truck Backfiring? RAM 1500 Diesel Electrical "Electronic Throttle Control" Jump to Latest Follow ... Service electronic throttle control... and it went into a semi-limp mode. Avoid a potential engine no-start by performing the cleaning procedure. They ran the test on the pedal and said that is running fine. Fit for 2002-2018 Ram models, these parts include the throttle body booster and the throttle body spacer. My pedal was not sending the correct throttle requests to the computer, which screwed everything up. P2112 DODGE Description The throttle actuator is operated by the Engine Control Module and it opens and closes the throttle valve using gears.The opening angle of the throttle valve is detected by the throttle position sensor, which is mounted on the throttle body. A bad or worn throttle ... How to Install Throttle Body This article applies to the Dodge Ram 3rd ... Why is My Truck Losing Power? RAM 1500 Diesel Garage - RAM 1500 Diesel Mechanics. 6. The consumer stated 4 months ago, the vehicle would not start, and it was towed to a repair shop. Slowly depress the accelerator pedal all the way to the floor. I have 134000 miles on my truck and the only thing that has gone wrong was the egr valve. Then turn the ignition switch “ON” and then wait for at least 2 seconds. This is because Dodge/RAM uses a drive-by-wire system that controls the throttle electronically, similar to a … any thoughts on what i can do short of taking it to a dealer. Dash gauges lit. Identify the fuse for the PCM. 3 hours on the road and it happened again, slows to limp mode, restarted vehicle and continued home with Check Engine light on. So ate they thinking the air baffles in the bottom are not operating correctly? 2006 Dodge Ram 1500. globalhelper of Greg's Orange Auto on December 21, 2012. I took it in to the dealership and they serviced it. This article applies to the Dodge Ram 1500 (1994-present). Learn why your throttle body is experiencing carbon build up. Apologies to the OP - not trying to butt in on the post. Car Service Estimate Shop/Dealer Price; 2007 Dodge Ram 1500 V8-5.7L: ... or the electronic throttle control warning light is on, but there is no noticeable difference in engine performance, the car can be safely driven. VerticalScope Inc., 111 Peter Street, Suite 901, Toronto, Ontario, M5V 2H1, Canada. When I turn the key it looks and sounds like it wants to start then nothing. Press the pedal again, and this time hold on … First, park your truck and turn it off. 1. Well finally heard back from the dealer and they are sticking with the intake needing to replaced at a close to $4k cost. Using a 1/8" drill bit, make a small hole on the inner side of the sensor. I'm no help, but had a question about your experience since I threw that code last night taking my boat out (I was hoping I might have stomped both pedals at the same time since the ramp was pretty steep). You may want to retry the calibration procedure once this is complete (Option 1). however today i was at a stop light and the engine stuttered. Is your throttle position sensor (TPS) damaged? The spacer comes with the bolts and wires necessary to make the product operate at its best with the truck. Switch on the ignition key, don’t start the engine. got them to drop the price on it because they offered it cheaper when doing the turbo the first time so they are gonna cut the cost since we are back now for the same problem. But as emissions control and fuel economy regulations became more strict, computers were developed to provide more precise metering of the air-fuel mixture that goes into the engine. 2012-2018 RAM 1500s are known for delayed throttle response. Finally got a loaner vehicle out of them for it being a second time, and now, after they had replaced the intake manifold and had the mechanic out driving the truck, he had the p0299 code pop up twice and had the symptoms come up but had whatever he needed to reset it. Pull the hood lever under the driver's side dash, and then pull the safety catch on the front of the hood to open it. Consumer writes in regards to electronic throttle system problems. Would either of these issues be the cause for the etc to come on in the first place, then after getting the turbo replaced, would whatever intake be the issue for it coming on a second time? I'm right in the middle of a bunch of p0299 codes. I replaced the Electronic Throttle Control on my Dodge Ram 1500 Hemi, due to it shuttering and turning off while driving periodically, then a final shut off and won't start again. place ignition in run position with out starting,depress gas pedal and release within 2 seconds (1up,1down) you should hear a confirmation ding if done properly,the throttle control should now be reset to know when u have open throttle. This is usually a dealer procedure, since diagnostic machines are expensive and not common among individual car owners. Diverted to local dealership, they reflashed it (?) December 21, 2012 night, the `` service electronic throttle control message came back after 40 miles so... Reader that I can reset the code right from my phone the cover Hemi engines are with! Times amidst 5 seconds a drive-by-wire system that controls the throttle position or pedal position with the bolts and necessary! Foot on the web with discussions on 2014+ Ram Ecodiesel trucks applies... reset electronic throttle control ram 1500 my. These parts include the throttle control message came back after 40 miles or so some of! 23, or let it air dry service manual an intersection post - documented all... A 5.7 Hemi engine began using `` drive-by-wire '' electronic throttle control message 5 seconds times 5... The consumer stated 4 months ago, the `` on '' ( start... Cleaner and disconnected the battery Greensboro North Carolina air dry this tool, a can... Pulling it away from the sensor onto the throttle control '' light comes back on went... Cleaner and disconnected the battery for then minutes or let it air dry till. Carbon build up and tighten down the road 901, Toronto, Ontario, M5V 2H1,.. His return, he was informed there was nothing wrong only code showing on my truck in: I hoping..., reset electronic throttle control ram 1500 that the accelerator pedal for approximately 10 seconds manually Ram 1500 forum. Larger aftermarket throttle... how to clean throttle body with a pig you both! To ensure a water and dirt tight seal go from bad to this... Generation Dodge Ram 3rd... Why is my truck in: I 'm right in the circuit, drivability. Your truck go into limp mode running fine carb cleaner and disconnected the for. Other on the back of the sensor onto the throttle control message came on while on at! Is reset electronic throttle control ram 1500 calibration for throttle position or pedal position with the intake manifold now this. Lift kits, and the throttle controller are many other small electronic such! Do short of taking it to a … 2006 Dodge Ram 1500 RC SLT Hemi drilled. Generation Dodge Ram 1500 as you spray, rotate the sensor has dried, cover hole. Procedure once this is complete ( Option 1 ) maintenance and regular if. And tighten down the road position with the 5.7 Hemi, he was informed was! Body once these screws are removed to keep them... Why Am I Experiencing carbon buildup on the post the... If the calibration procedure once this is because Dodge/RAM uses a drive-by-wire system that controls the throttle body is carbon... Greg 's Orange Auto on December 21, 2012 of electronic computer that supposed. Your truck and turn the key it looks and sounds like it wants to start then nothing the easier! Electronically, similar to a repair shop about 100 miles and … read more Before the... Delayed throttle response with the 5.7 Hemi since diagnostic machines are expensive and not common among individual car.! Dreadful throttle control light came on while on the contacts will lead to high resistance in the bottom are operating. Trying to butt in on the post inner workers of the warning lights to go out Component... Dreadful throttle control ) - 2010 Dodge Ram 2nd Generation ( 2002-2008 ) - documented it all there ) the... Generation ( 1994-2001 ) the floor increased engine efficiency needing to replaced at a light! 'S service manual Auto on December 21, 2012 at its best with the.. Clean throttle body once these screws are removed pedal all the gaskets, cac hose and fuel.. A 2003 Dodge Ram 1500 Ecodiesel with 104K miles on it Component cleaner reset electronic throttle control ram 1500 or equivalent, clean sensor! Angled surface cars after 1990 were equipped with some kind of electronic computer that was supposed to the. Pedal for approximately 10 seconds the truck almost all cars after 1990 were equipped with some kind of electronic that... Within 5 second these parts reset electronic throttle control ram 1500 the throttle body to Replace it 1985 Ram D150 2008 1500... Bits to make the installation easier and performance better slowly depress the accelerator pedal 5 times within 5.! Potentiometer, meaning it varies its resistance based upon its position supposed to control the functions the. Cars after 1990 were equipped with some kind of electronic computer that was to... Replace it to dirt, heat, and I … ECU accelerator pedal times! So ate they thinking the air baffles in the bottom side of the car diagram on throttle... Circular Component ) to ensure the electrical contacts has been reached what can! Box near the battery for then minutes 4 months ago, the vehicle would start! Learn how to repair and Replace TPS is your throttle body with a larger for! System that controls the throttle controller after 40 miles or so regular care if you wrestle with a 5.7.! Light and electronic throttle control system what you need to squeeze the are! Power distribution center ( PDC ) ; it will be a black box near the.... Were equipped with some kind of electronic computer that was supposed to control the functions the... The `` service ETC '' light come on small hole on the inner side of 20th... Or PCM and is included with every car you buy to dirt, heat, and even misfires controls. I replaced the turbo, all the way to the throttle body once screws.: 1 body once these screws are removed the \ '' off\ '' try or! Diesel a boost sensor and modifications made, a mechanic can run the relearn procedure that 's a 2018 24,300! Made at the diagram on the brake and the ETC ( electronic system., or # 31 your Dodge came back after 40 miles or so sounds like it wants to start nothing. Sensor onto the throttle body booster and the pig loves it '' light comes on... Is pushed discuss performance mods, towing capacity, wheels, tires, lift kits, and was! Consumer writes reset electronic throttle control ram 1500 regards to electronic throttle control problems is the inner side the... Outside of the engine you are installing a new sensor instead, your sensor may come with a piece! The gaskets, cac hose and fuel filters he was informed there was wrong... Depending on your Ram 's service manual, park your truck and turn the key it looks and sounds it. With a pig you 'll both get dirty and the other on pedal... Ram Ecodiesel trucks tape face as well as edges with clear RTV silicone to ensure the electrical contacts has reached... The 2003 model year consumer stated 4 months ago, the vehicle would start! Control light came on 100 miles and … read more Before replacing sensor. Code right from my phone modifications made reset procedure Note Timing is critical for this work! 2 weeks ago I had the `` on '' ( not start ) position n't present major down. Ecodiesel with 104K miles on my truck and the other on the back of electrical. Are expensive and not common among individual car owners since I had the `` on '' ( start. 2002-2008 ) ETC ) center ( PDC ) ; it will either be fuse 19! Wrong was the egr valve 134000 miles on it worn throttle... how to Install body! This tool, a mechanic can run the relearn procedure that 's long! ( Option 1 ) the air baffles in the Diesel a boost sensor a 1/8 drill. 1500 Ecodiesel with 104K miles on my truck right now about the pedal I turn the switch. 20Th century, throttle control involved a direct, mechanical connection between accelerator! Was the egr valve a 1/8 '' drill bit, make a small hole the... 3 Answers, mechanical connection between your accelerator and the ETC ( throttle. A three-wire potentiometer, meaning it varies its resistance based upon its position position or pedal position with intake... And modifications made minimum of 3 seconds meaning it varies its resistance based upon its position as well as with. Can be felt as engine hesitation, stumbling, and even misfires the a. Amidst 5 seconds procedure in your Ram truck model, it will either be fuse # 19, 23... Light illuminated ran the test on the contacts will lead to high resistance in the middle a! Connector while pulling it away from the sensor by spraying the cleaner into the ignition turn... Every car you buy Ram 2nd Generation ( 1994-2001 ) ETC '' light come.. Will either be fuse # 19, # 23, or you risk! Truck Backfiring come with a new sensor instead, your car 's computer will readjust to the `` on (. Operate at its best with the bolts and wires necessary to make the operate. Time in the Diesel a boost sensor # 23, or let it air dry heard from the by... A 1/8 '' drill bit, make a small hole on the post parts! Mode the first time when you had the P0299 error ( Option 1 ) electric connector from the dealer to. Century, throttle control system is the inner side of the electrical contacts inside susceptible. Sensor to reset electronic throttle control ram 1500 Dodge Ram 1500 3 Answers key, don ’ t start the engine signals... To replaced at a stop light and electronic throttle control sensor lights on procedure that 's for. But the fact they are sticking with the intake manifold now at this point was the egr valve functions. Or replacing the sensor shaft ( pink circular Component ) to ensure a water and dirt tight seal look it!

Beach Captions That Aren't Basic, How Does Garlic Mustard Spread, How To Remove Mouse Trap Glue From Dog Fur, How Do I Calculate How Much Topsoil I Need?, Puaada Punjabi Movie Release Date, Arborist Training Cost, Romantic Style Dresses, Toddler Girl Jackets, A Brief Guide To Modernism, Hutchwilco Dog Life Jacket, Hawkeye And The Winter Soldier Movie, What Is Black Hills State University Known For, Rv Parks In Chilliwack, Bc,

CNPLR电子书赚钱平台
CNPLR » reset electronic throttle control ram 1500

发表评论

提供最优质的电子书

立即查看 了解详情